Experimental Restoration of Pine Flatwoods Wetlands (Legacy 11-109) (PDF)
The objective was to evaluate whether mechanical removal of the woody midstory could serve as a surrogate for fire, and create highquality wetlands with moderate canopy cover and high herbaceous groundcover.
Developing Coastal Wetland Restoration Techniques to Enhance Coastal Habitats - Final Report, November 2012 (Legacy 11-320) (PDF)
This project was to investigate species-specific techniques for seeding and outplanting Hawaiian coastal wetland plant species following different invasive species removal strategies and subsequent management activities (i.e., weeding and supplemental watering). This experimental restoration project was carried out at Ahua Reef on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH). The results of this study show that it is possible to at least partially restore a highly degraded coastal wetland such as Ahua Reef and the report provides specific recommendations that will yield the best results.
Direct Seeding for Restoration of Coastal Wetlands in Hawaii - Technical Report, November 2012 (Legacy 11-320) (PDF)
This project was to investigate species-specific techniques for seeding and outplanting Hawaiian coastal wetland plant species following different invasive species control strategies and subsequent management activities (i.e., weeding and supplemental watering). The experimental restoration project was carried out at Ahua Reef on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), formerly Hickam Air Force Base, Oahu. Outplanting is the most commonly used technique to increase native species cover in wetlands. Seeding may offer a simpler and more affordable restoration method than outplanting in wetlands, particularly for large-scale restoration projects. However, seeding in wetlands using standard seeding techniques can be problematic due to issues with proper germination conditions. The purpose of this technical report is to briefly describe the lessons learned during the seeding portion of the experiment at Ahua Reef and summarize the scant information that exists on seeding in Hawaiian wetlands. This report offers recommendations for DoD land managers considering using seeding to restore coastal wetlands in Hawaii.
Guidelines of Establishment of Seed Production Sites on Military Installations - Final Report, February 2012 (Legacy 10-326) (PDF)
This report is intended to serve as a guideline for the establishment of seed production sites for use on military installations based on the experiences and protocols developed in south the Puget sound (SPS) prairie program for use in restoration on Joint Base Lewis McChord. This document contains valuable directions, methods, recommendations and issues to consider, in addition to species specific information, and is a valuable resource to any installation wishing to develop its own restoration seed supply.
Guidelines for Establishing Nursery and Nursery Beds: A Management Plan - Final, February 2012 (Legacy 09-326) (PDF)
The ultimate goal of this project is to improve prairie quality at the landscape level by implementing prairie management and restoration actions that have a primary emphasis on recovering the Federal Candidates and other rare species throughout the SPS, and restoring native plant biodiversity on Fort Lewis' prairies The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Shotwell's Landing Nursery, which was largely established with Legacy funds is now fully developed and running at full capacity for both seed and plug production. This project is also to serve as a demonstration that other installations can follow and duplicate for themselves. This report details the steps for continuing the management of the nursery and seed plots.
Strategy for the Cooperative Recovery of Rare Species Affecting Training Ranges: Integrated Prairie-Oak Conservation Report for Oregon and Washington - Final Report, December 2011 (Legacy 09-213) (PDF)
Prairie-oak habitat is one of the most imperiled habitats in the western United States. The importance of prairie-oak habitat in the WPG Ecoregion is recognized in the Wildlife Action Plans for Oregon and Washington. Both the Plans identify strategies and actions designed to preserve, rehabilitate and expand prairie-oak habitat in the Ecoregion. This report extensively draws from, and builds upon, those Plans. to list the limiting factors to prairie-oak habitat in the WPG Ecoregion, and the actions to counteract those factors. It also includes lists the species of greatest conservation need and the actions necessary to protect those species. Finally the report recommends areas where a coordinated, ecoregional prairie-oak conservation effort may be most effective.
Strategy for the Cooperative Recovery of Rare Species Affecting Training Ranges: Native Seed Production Strategy - A Key Piece of South Puget Sound Prairie Conservation, November 2011 (Legacy 09-213) (PDF)
The prairies of the South Puget Sound region are central to conservation of one of the rarest ecosystems in the U.S. Restoration and active management is a critical conservation strategy for South Sound prairies. Direct seeding of species, especially after sufficient site preparation, is a successful technique. In order to restore habitat at scale a sufficient source of native seed is needed yearly. This document details a variety of seed production techniques can be integrated into an overarching production strategy. Seed collecting techniques, lists of priority species and species specific information is included.
DoD Island Restoration Opportunities in the Tropical Indo-Pacific through Removal of Introduced Rats, Final Report November 2011 (Legacy 09-438) (PDF)
Introduced rats are known to dramatically affect island biodiversity and so rodents have been removed from approximately 300 islands worldwide, demonstrating that eradication of rats can be a valuable tool for natural resources conservation. This document is a compilation of islands in the tropical and sub-tropical Indian and Pacific (Indo-Pacific) oceans in which the DoD owns or leases, or has management stake in at least a portion of the land area. Also included in this compilation are some non-DoD islands in the same region that have been or may be proposed as mitigation sites for DoD activities on adjacent islands. The islands analyzed here are those for which rat removal, or in the case of already ratfree islands, maintenance in a rat-free state, may be a feasible action for the benefit of the island's native biodiversity and/or the military mission.
Establishing American Chestnut Test Orchards on Two Tennessee Army National Guard Installations (Legacy 08-401) (PDF)
American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once one of the dominant trees in the eastern forests of the United States. By 1950, this keystone species on an estimated 9 million acres of eastern forest had all but vanished as a result of blight infection. The purpose of this project is to contribute to the efforts to develop a blight-resistant American chestnut that may be reintroduced into its former habitat across the eastern United States by establishing seed orchards on two Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) facilities: VTS-Milan and VTS-Catoosa. This report describes the methodologies in producing the crosses and establishing the orchards.
Project Protocol for Establishing American Chestnut Test Orchards on Two TNARNG Installations - Final Report, March 2012 (Legacy 08-401) (PDF)
Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) American chestnut project all began with a lunchtime seminar hosted by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency at which the American Chestnut Foundation (TACF) gave a presentation on his organization's efforts to restore this species to the eastern landscape. It has been a complex process to get from that discussion to the several hundred chestnut seedlings growing in orchards on two TNARNG training sites. The goal of this paper is to document that process, highlighting problems, successes, and lessons learned, so that other installations/organizations may also find it possible to contribute to the rescue efforts for this species.
Restoration of Native Warm Season Grasses to Improve Migratory Bird Habitat (Legacy 07-354) (PDF)
Native grasses are important for many species of migratory birds and other wildlife because their clumpy growth form provides structural cover for nesting, brood rearing, and foraging. Over the last century, most of these areas have been replaced with nonnative grasses, agricultural crops, forest cover, and urban/suburban development. Throughout North America, efforts are underway to restore native grasslands and other essential habitats for migratory birds through private-public partnerships. As part of a Partnership pilot project, two hundred and twenty acres of nonnative pasture on Redstone Arsenal, AL were converted to native warm season grasses (NWSG) that would benefit priority grassland bird species such as Dickcissels, Grasshopper Sparrows, Field Sparrows, Prairie Warblers, Northern Bob-white Quail, Loggerhead Shrikes, and Eastern Meadowlarks. This report details the project, and discusses management considerations applicable to others considering NWSG restoration.
Implementing Rotational Partial Rest/Patch-Burn Grazing in the Flint Hills, Kansas (Legacy 03-188) (PDF)
Protect significant biological systems (tallgrass prairie) and species (emphasis on grassland birds), and establish programs for the restoration and rehabilitation of altered or degraded habitats near Fort Riley
Native Pollinator and Native Plant Demonstration Project (PDF)
Discusses native pollinators, threats to pollinators and details a restoration demonstration project on Dyess AFB, Abilene, TX. Includes lessons learned.
Fact Sheet: Conservation of Indigenous Birds on Wake Atoll (Legacy 01-134) (DOC)
This document summarizes a project dealing with the removal and eradication of feral cats on Wake Atoll (Marshall Islands, Micronesia) in order to preserve the indigenous birds whose numbers were declining due to heavy predation by numerous feral cats.
TECHNICAL NOTE: Developing Coastal Wetland Restoration Techniques to Enhance Coastal Habitats at Ahua Reef, Hickam AFB, HI - Direct Seeding for Restoration of Coastal Wetlands in Hawai'i, November 2012 (Legacy 11-320) (PDF)
The objective of this study was to investigate species-specific techniques for seeding and outplanting Hawaiian coastal wetland plant species following different invasive species control strategies (i.e., herbiciding and manual removal of pickleweed) and subsequent management activities (i.e., weeding and supplemental watering) at ?hua Reef. This study provides insights into the restoration of coastal wetlands in Hawai‘i. Results of this study suggest that it is possible to at least partially restore a highly degraded coastal wetland such as Ahua Reef. This Technical Note provides an expanded summary of the project and its findings.
Speeches and Presentations
Brochure: American Chestnut Orchards and the Tennessee National Guard- Utilizing military initiative to support restoration efforts. (Legacy 08-401): (PDF)
this outreach publication nicely summarizes the history of the plight of the chestnut, efforts to save the species and the military's part in the restoration efforts.
The Green Book
The Green Book - Appendix A (PDF)
Environmental Principles for Golf Courses in the United States
The Green Book - Appendix B (PDF)
Sources of Information
The Green Book - Appendix C (PDF)
The Green Book - Appendix J (PDF)
Site Analysis Forms for Each Hole