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Marine Protected

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Marine Conservation Topics

Marine Protected Areas

Where noted, some referenced documents are available. To view a document, click on the hyperlink following the reference; hyperlinks will turn red when the mouse pointer is on them.

Marine protected areas recognized by the World Conservation Monitoring Center

Source: NOAA

Allison, G. W., J. Lubchenco and M. H. Carr. 1998. Marine Reserves are Necessary but not Sufficient for Marine Conservation. Ecological Applications 8(1) Supplement: S79-S92.

PDF available


Aronson, R. and W. Precht. 2006. Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs 25(3):441-450.

PDF available


Arponen, A., R. K. Heikkinen, C. D. Thomas and A. Moilanen. 2005. The Value of Biodiversity in Reserve Selection: Representation, Species Weighting, and Benefit Functions. Conservation Biology 19(6): 2009-2014.

PDF available


Aswani, S. and M. Lauer. 2006. Incorporating fishermen’s local knowledge and behavior into Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for designing marine protected areas in oceania. Human Organization 65(1):81-102.

PDF available


Balmford, A., P. Gravestock, N. Hockley, C. J. McClean and C.M. Roberts. 2004. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(26):9694-9697.

PDF available


Barton, N. L. 2006. Methods for evaluating the potential effects of marine protected areas on adjacent fisheries. Master’s Thesis, Simon Fraser University.

PDF available


Beger, M, GP Jones, and PL Munday. 2003. Conservation of coral reef biodiversity: a comparison of reserve selection procedures for corals and fishes. Biological Conservation 111:53-62.

PDF avaialble


Boersma, P. D. and J. K. Parrish. 1999. Limiting abuse: marine protected areas, a limited solution. Ecological Economics 31:287-304.

PDF available


Charton, J. A. G., I. D. Williams, A. P. Ruzafa, M. Milazzo, R. Chemello, C. Marcos, M.-S. Kitsos, A. Koukouras and S. Riggio. 2000. Evaluating the ecological effects of Mediterranean marine protected areas: habitat, scale and the natural variability of ecosystems. Environmental Conservation, 27, pp 159-178.

Abstract available


Christie, P., B. J. McCay, M. L. Miller, C. Lowe, A. T. White, R. Stoffle, D. L. Fluharty, L. T. McManus, R. Chuenpagdee, C. Pomeroy, D. O. Suman, B. G. Blount, D. Huppert, R. L. V. Eisma, E. Oracion, K. Lowry and R. B. Pollnac. 2003. Toward developing a complete understanding: a social science research agenda for marine protected areas. Fisheries 28(12)22-26.

PDF available


Claudet, J., D. Pelletier, J.-Y. Jouvenel, F. Bachet and R. Galzin. 2006. Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: Identifying community-based indicators. Biological Conservation 130(3):349-369.

PDF available


Davis, G. E. 2005. Science and Society: Marine Reserve Design for the California Channel Islands. Conservation Biology 19(6): 1745-1751.

PDF available


Davos, C. A., K. Siakavara, A. Santorineou, J. Side, M. Taylor and P. Barriga. 2007. Zoning of marine protected areas: Conflicts and cooperation options in the Galapagos and San Andres archipelagos. Ocean & Coastal Management 50:223-252.

PDF available


Dawson, M. N., R. K. Grosberg, L. W. Botsford, R. S. Steneck, R. K. Cowen, C. B. Paris and A. Srinivasan. 2006. Connectivity in marine protected areas. Science 313(5783):43-45.

PDF available


Fernandes, L., J. day, A. Lewis, S. Slegers, B. Kerrigan, D. Breen, D. Cameron, B. Jago, J. Hall, D. Lowe, J. Innes, J. Tanzer, V. Chadwick, L. Thompson, K> Gorman, M. Simmons, B. Barnett, K. Sampson, G. De’ath, B. Mapstone, H. Marsh, H. Possingham, I. Ball, T. Ward, K. Dobbs, J. Aumend, D. Slater and K. Stapleton. 2005. Establishing Representative No-Take Areas in the Great Barrier Reef: Large-Scale Implementation of Theory on Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology 19(6):1733-1744.

PDF available


Friedlander, A. M., E. K. Brown and M. E. Monaco. 2007. Coupling ecology and GIS to evaluate efficacy of marine protected areas in Hawaii. Ecological Applications 17(3):715-730.

Abstract available


Gerber, L. R., L. W. Botsford, A. Hastings, H. P. Possingham, S. D. Gaines, S. R. Palumbi and S. Andelman. 2003. Population models for marine reserve design: a retrospective and prospective synthesis. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S47-S64.

PDF available


Hilborn, R., F. Micheli and G. A. De Leo. 2006. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63(3):642-649.

PDF available


Kaiser, M. J. 2005. Are marine protected areas a red herring or fisheries panacea? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62:1194-1199.

PDF available


Kareiva, P. 2006. Conservation biology: beyond marine protected areas. Current Biology 16(14):R533-R535.

PDF available



Kelleher, G. 1996. A global representative system of marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management 32(2):123-126.

PDF available


Langlois, T. J. and W. J. Ballantine. 2005. Marine Ecological Research in New Zealand: Developing Predictive Models through the Study of No-Take Marine Reserves. Conservation Biology 19(6): 1763-1770.

PDF available


Leathwick, J., A. Moilanen, M. Francis, J. Elith, P. Taylor, K. Julian, T. Hastie and C. Duffy. 2008. Novel methods for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters. Conservation Letters 1(2):91-102.

PDF available


Leslie, H. M. 2005. A Synthesis of Marine Conservation Planning Approaches. Conservation Biology 19(6): 1701-1713.

PDF available


Lubchenco, J., S. R. Palumbi, S. D. Gaines and S. Andelman. 2003. Plugging a hole in the ocean: the emerging science of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S3-S7.

PDF available


Lundquist, C. J. and E. F. Granek. 2005. Strategies for Successful Marine Conservation: Integrating Socioeconomic, Political, and Scientific Factors. Conservation Biology 19(6): 1771-1778.

PDF available


McClanahan, T.R. and Mangi, S.  2001.  The effect of a closed area and beach seine exclusion on coral reef fish catches.  Fisheries Management and Ecology.  8: 107-121.

PDF available


McClanahan, T. R., M. J. Mamane, J. E. Cinner and W. E. Kiene. 2006. A Comparison of Marine Protected Areas and Alternative Approaches to Coral-Reef Management. Current Biology 16:1408-1413.

PDF available


Micheli, F., L. Benedetti-Cecchi, S. Gambaccini, I. Bertocci, C. Borsini, G. C. Osio and F. Romano. 2005. Cascading human impacts, marine protected areas, and the structure of Mediterranean reef assemblages. Ecological Monographs 75(1):81-102.

PDF available


Mora, C., S. Adrefouet, M. J. Costello, C. Kranenburg, A. Rollo, J. Veron, K. J. Gaston and R. A. Myers. 2006. Coral Reefs and the Global Network of Marine Protected Areas. Science 312(5781):1750-1751.

PDF available


Orbach M, Karrer L (2010) Marine managed areas: what why and where. Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA. 16pp.

PDF available


Pala, C. 2007. Palau combats coral bleaching. Science 316(5825):680.

PDF available


Pitcher, T. J., E. A. Buchary and U. R. Sumalia. 2002. Spatial ecosystem simulation of no-take human-made reefs in marine protected areas: forecasting the costs and benefits in Hong Kong. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:S17-S26.

PDF available


Pomeroy, R. and T. Goetze. 2003. Belize case study: marine protected areas co-managed by Friends of Nature. Caribbean Coastal Co-management Guidelines Project, Caribbean Conservation Association, Barbados:69p.

PDF available


Sale PF, Van Lavieren H, Ablan Lagman MC, Atema J, Butler M, Fauvelot C, Hogan JD, Jones GP, indeman KC, Paris CB, Steneck R, Stewart HL (2010) Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers. Connectivity Working Group, Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program, UNU-INWEH.

PDF available


Samoilys, M. A., K. M. Martin-Smith, B. G. Giles, B. Cabrera, J. A. Anticamara, E. O. Brunio and A. C. J. Vincent. 2007. Effectiveness of five small Philippines’ coral reef reserves for fish populations depends on site-specific factors, particularly enforcement history. Biological Conservation 136: 584-601.

PDF available


Sumaila, U. R., S. Guenette, J. Alder, D. Pollard and R. Chuenpagdee. 1999. Marine protected areas and managing fished ecosystems. Report – Chr. Michelsen Institute for Development Studies and Human Rights (Norway).

PDF available


Vollmer, S. V. and S. R. Palumbi. 2007. Restricted Gene Flow in the Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis: Implications for the Recovery of Endangered Reefs. Journal of Heredity 98(1):40-50.

PDF available


Walters, C. 2000. Impacts of dispersal, ecological interactions, and fishing effort dynamics on efficacy of marine protected areas: how large should protected areas be? Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 745-757.

PDF available


Walters, C. J., R. Hilborn and R. Parrish. 2007. An equilibrium model for predicting the efficacy of marine protected areas in coastal environments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64:1009-1018. 

Abstract available


Walters, C., D. Pauly and V. Christensen. 1999. Ecospace: Prediction of Mesoscale Spatial Patterns in Trophic Relationships of Exploited Ecosystems, with Emphasis on the Impacts of Marine Protected Areas. Ecosystems 2:539-554.

PDF available


Wantiez, L., Thollot, P. and Kulbicki, M. 1997. Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia. Coral Reefs 16:215-224.

PDF available


Ward, T. and E. Hegerl. 2003. Marine protected areas in ecosystem-based management of fisheries. Report – Department of the Environment and Heritage, Natural Heritage Trust, Commonwealth of Australia.

PDF available


Westmacott, S., K. Teleki, S. Wells and J. M. West. 2000. Management of bleached and severely damaged coral reefs. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vi + 37 pp.

PDF available


Wilkinson, C., A. Caillaud, L. DeVantier and R. South. 2006. Strategies to reverse the decline in valuable and diverse coral reefs, mangroves and fisheries: The bottom of the J-Curve in Southeast Asia? Ocean & Coastal Management 49:764-778.

PDF available