Threatened and Endangered Species

Department of Defense

Coral Reef Initiative Database

Home            Coral Reef Info            Locations            Reef Assessment            Conservation

 
 

This section focuses on plants and animals found in tropical marine regions that may have special conservation status.  The main information source for this section is the IUCN (The International Union for the Conservation of Nature) Red List of Threatened Species (www.iucnredlist.org) which is recognized as a comprehensive and objective method for evaluating the conservation status of species worldwide. This section focuses on species considered to have a threatened conservation status and that fall into one of the three categories below:


CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)

A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered (see criteria below), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.


ENDANGERED (EN)

A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered (see criteria below), and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.


VULNERABLE (VU)

A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable (see criteria below), and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.


On each species page, the conservation category is listed, followed by the criteria resulting in that listing. Definitions and explanations for those criteria a found below.

Coral Reef Threatened Species

This section focuses on plants and animals found in tropical marine regions that may have special conservation status.  The main information source for this section is the IUCN (The International Union for the Conservation of Nature) Red List of Threatened Species (www.iucnredlist.org) which is recognized as a comprehensive and objective method for evaluating the conservation status of species worldwide. This section focuses on species considered to have a threatened conservation status including critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable status. (Described in more detail below)

Sharks like the gray reef shark pictured on top are threatened by overfishing while global climate change and ocean acidification are major threats to corals.

SEARCH BY ORGANISM
This search provides a spreadsheet  
of species of interest

All Species

VERTEBRATES
Mammals
Reptiles
Birds
Fishes

INVERTEBRATES
Corals
Other

PLANTSThreatened_and_Endangered_files/allspecies1.htmThreatened_and_Endangered_files/Mammals.htmThreatened_and_Endangered_files/reptiles.htmThreatened_and_Endangered_files/Birds.htmThreatened_and_Endangered_files/Fishes.htmThreatened_and_Endangered_files/corals.htmThreatened_and_Endangered_files/Inverts.htmThreatened_and_Endangered_files/Plants.htmThreatened_and_Endangered_files/allspecies1_1.htmshapeimage_3_link_0shapeimage_3_link_1shapeimage_3_link_2shapeimage_3_link_3shapeimage_3_link_4shapeimage_3_link_5shapeimage_3_link_6shapeimage_3_link_7

CRITERIA FOR CRITICALLY ENDANGERED, ENDANGERED, and VULNERABLE


From: IUCN. (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ii + 30 pp. www.iucnredlist.org/documents/redlist_cats_crit_en.pdf



CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)

A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria (A to E), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild:


A. Reduction in population size based on any of the following:

   

1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 390% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer,  where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on (and specifying) any of the following:

        (a) direct observation

        (b) an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon

        (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat

        (d) actual or potential levels of exploitation

        (e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.

   

2. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 380% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.


3. A population size reduction of 380%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years), based on (and specifying) any of (b) to (e) under A1.


4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of 380% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future), where the time period must include both the past and the future, and where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.


B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) OR B2 (area

of occupancy) OR both:


1. Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 100 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a–c:


a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location.


b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat

(iv) number of locations or subpopulations

(v) number of mature individuals.


c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) number of locations or subpopulations

(iv) number of mature individuals.


2. Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 10 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a–c:


a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location.


b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat

(iv) number of locations or subpopulations

(v) number of mature individuals.


c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) number of locations or subpopulations

(iv) number of mature individuals.



C. Population size estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals and either:


1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 25% within three years or one generation, whichever is longer, (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future) OR


2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals AND at least one of the following (a–b):


a. Population structure in the form of one of the following:

(i) no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 50 mature individuals, OR

(ii) at least 90% of mature individuals in one subpopulation.


b. Extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals.


D. Population size estimated to number fewer than 50 mature individuals.


E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 50% within 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years).



ENDANGERED (EN)


A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria (A to E), and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild:


A. Reduction in population size based on any of the following:


1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 370% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on (and specifying) any of the following:

(a) direct observation

(b) an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon

(c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat

(d) actual or potential levels of exploitation

(e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.


2. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction

of 350% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer,

where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be

understood OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a)

to (e) under A1.


3. A population size reduction of 350%, projected or suspected to be met within

the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer (up to a

maximum of 100 years), based on (and specifying) any of (b) to (e) under A1.


4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population size

reduction of 350% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever

is longer (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future), where the time period

must include both the past and the future, and where the reduction or its

causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be

reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.


B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) OR B2 (area

of occupancy) OR both:


1. Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5000 km2, and estimates

indicating at least two of a–c:


a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.


b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat

(iv) number of locations or subpopulations

(v) number of mature individuals.


c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) number of locations or subpopulations

(iv) number of mature individuals.


2. Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km2, and estimates

indicating at least two of a–c:


a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.

b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat

(iv) number of locations or subpopulations

(v) number of mature individuals.


c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) number of locations or subpopulations

(iv) number of mature individuals.


C. Population size estimated to number fewer than 2500 mature individuals and either:


1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future) OR


2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals AND at least one of the following (a–b):


a. Population structure in the form of one of the following:


(i) no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 250 mature individuals, OR

(ii) at least 95% of mature individuals in one subpopulation.


b. Extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals.


D. Population size estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals.


E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 20% within 20 years or five generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years).


VULNERABLE (VU)


A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any

of the following criteria (A to E), and it is therefore considered to be facing a high

risk of extinction in the wild:


A. Reduction in population size based on any of the following:


1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 350% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are: clearly reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on (and specifying) any of the following:


(a) direct observation

(b) an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon

(c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat

(d) actual or potential levels of exploitation

(e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.


2. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 330% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.


3. A population size reduction of 330%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years), based on (and specifying) any of (b) to (e) under A1.


4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of 330% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future), where the time period must include both the past and the future, and where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.


B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) OR B2 (area of occupancy) OR both:


1. Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 20,000 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a–c:


a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than 10 locations.


b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the

following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat

(iv) number of locations or subpopulations

(v) number of mature individuals.


c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) number of locations or subpopulations

(iv) number of mature individuals.


2. Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 2000 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a–c:


a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than 10 locations.


b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat

(iv) number of locations or subpopulations

(v) number of mature individuals.


c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

(i) extent of occurrence

(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) number of locations or subpopulations

(iv) number of mature individuals.


C. Population size estimated to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals and either:


1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 10% within 10 years or three generations, whichever is longer, (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future) OR


2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals AND at least one of the following (a–b):


a. Population structure in the form of one of the following:


(i) no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 1000 mature individuals, OR

(ii) all mature individuals are in one subpopulation.


b. Extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals.


D. Population very small or restricted in the form of either of the following:


1. Population size estimated to number fewer than 1000 mature individuals.


2. Population with a very restricted area of occupancy (typically less than 20 km2) or number of locations (typically five or fewer) such that it is prone to the effects of human activities or stochastic events within a very short time period in an uncertain future, and is thus capable of becoming Critically Endangered or even Extinct in a very short time period.


E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 10% within 100 years.

SEARCH BY REGION

This search provides spreadsheets of threatened species and has links to fact sheets for critically endangered species found within each region


ATLANTIC

Western Central

Eastern Central

Southwest

Southeast


PACIFIC

Western Central

Eastern Central

Southwest

Southeast


INDIAN OCEAN

Western

Eastern

Map of FAO Major Fishing Areas used to delineate threatened species by region.