Conservation

Underwater Noise

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Marine Conservation Topics

Underwater Noise

Where noted, some referenced documents are available. To view a document, click on the hyperlink following the reference; hyperlinks will turn red when the mouse pointer is on them.

Erbe, C. 2002. Underwater noise of whale-watching boats and potential effects on killer whales (Orcinus orca), based on an acoustic impact model. Marine Mammal Science 18(2): 394-418.

PDF available


Hatch, LT, AM Gontz, CW Clark, and D Wiley. The Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary as a regional case study for integrating protected species and protected area management tools to study and mitigate impacts of anthropogenic noise sources on marine mammals. The International Whaling Commission. SC/58/E2:1-11.

PDF available


Jasny, M., J. Reynolds, C. Horowitz, A. Wetzler. 2005. Sounding the depths, the rising toll of sonar, shipping and industrial ocean noise on marine life. Natural Resources Defense Council, November 2005.

PDF available


Jepson, PD, M Arbelo, R Deaville, IAP Patterson, P Castro, JR Bakers, E Degollada, HM Ross, P Herraez, AM Pocknell, F Rodriguez, FE Howie, A Espinoza, RJ Reid, JR Jaber, V Martin, AA Cunningham, A Fernandez. 2003. Gas-bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans. Nature. 425: 575.

PDF available


Madsen, P. T., M. Wahlberg, J. Tougaard, K. Lucke and P. Tyack. 2006. Wind turbine underwater noise and marine mammals: implications of current knowledge and data needs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 309:279-295.

Abstract available


Malakoff, D. 2001. A roaring debate over ocean noise. Science. 291:5504: 576-578.

Word document available


Mitson, R. B. 1995. Underwater noise of research vessels review and recommendations. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Cooperative Research Report No. 209.

PDF available


Mitson, R. B. and H. P. Knudsen. 2003. Causes and effects of underwater noise on fish abundance estimation. Aquatic Living Resources 16:255-263.

PDF available


Polefka, S and L Krop. 2004. Anthropogenic noise and the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: How noise affects sanctuary resources and what we can do about it. Environmental Defense Center, Santa Barbara, CA.

PDF available


Scholik, A. R. and H. Y. Yan. 2001. Effects of underwater noise on auditory sensitivity of a cyprnid fish. Hearing Research 152(1-2):17-24.

PDF available


Stocker, M. 2004. Ocean bioacoustics, human generated noise and ocean policy.

PDF available


Wan, S. 2005. Coastal Commission comments on the effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals. Statement for: The Report of the Advisory Committee on Acoustic Impacts on Marine Mammals to the Marine Mammal Commission. On Behalf of M Caldwell.

PDF available


Würsig, B., C. R. Greene Jr., T. A. Jefferson. 2000. Development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling. Marine Environmental Research 49(1):79-93.

PDF available