Cultural Resources

Archives: Archaeology and Curation

Archaeology: Curation (Archives)

This guidance document for archaeological collections management and curation for Department of Defense Service installations gives an overview of current collection management policies and procedures and presents best practices in each area of curation. The recommended policies and practices are designed to minimize costs while maximizing the research, education, and cultural heritage value of Federal collections in accordance with 36 CFR Part 79, Curation of Federally Owned and Administered Archaeological Collections. Kerry L. Sagebiel, Kelly L. Jenks, Teresita Majewski, and Lauren E. Jelinek.

This workbook is intended for use by installation personnel with limited personnel for archaeological collection care but who have responsibilities for the long-term care of these collections. This document is intended as an easy-to-understand “roadmap” on installation responsibilities under the law and procedures for curating archaeological collections. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – St. Louis District.

Department of Defense archaeological collections generally have not been curated to the standards required by 36 CFR Part 79. This report, based on a study in the eastern United States, identified potential partners, evaluated their capabilities to manage DoD archaeological collections, and collected baseline administrative information associated with such a project. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – St. Louis District, Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections.

This document reports on a curation needs assessment conducted 1997-2000 for the Army National Guard and select Air National Guard, Air Force Plants, and Air and Army Reserve facilities in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Guam. Hawaii, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Kristen Langness Marino and Cathy A. Van Arsdale.

This assessment reviewed all active military installations in Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Kansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and the District of Columbia (86 facilities, including research firms, public and private museums, military installations, university lab/curation facilities, and government agencies). The document presents recommendations for compliance with 36 CFR Part 79. Susan S. Felix, Amy E. Halpin, Eugene A. Marino, Steve McSween, D. Lynn Murdoch, Julie A. Samerdyke, Kenneth L. Shingleton, and Sylvia Yu.

This assessment reviewed all active military installations in Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, and Wisconsin. The document presents recommendations for compliance with 36 CFR Part 79. Lara Anderson, Karolyn Kinsey, Marc Kodack, Eugene Marino, Jennifer Riordan, Barbara Smyer, and Kelly Wissehr.

Department of Defense archaeological collections generally have not been curated to the standards required by 36 CFR Part 79. This report, based on a study in the western and mid-Atlantic United States, identified potential partners, evaluated their capabilities to manage DoD archaeological collections, and collected baseline administrative information associated with such a project. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – St. Louis District, Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections.

This document reports on a survey of archaeological collections and associated documentation generated from archaeological investigations conducted within the boundaries of 18 military installations located in Idaho, Maryland, Montana, Virginia, and Wyoming. The study found that most collections require at least partial rehabilitation to comply with 36 CFR Part 79, Curation of Federally-Owned and Administered Archaeological Collections. Kelly Holland-Wissehr, Kenneth L. Shingleton, Jr., Jeremy L. Goldstein, Mary J. Bade, and Sylvia Yu.

This document reports an assessment of archaeological collections and associated documentation generated from archaeological investigations conducted within the boundaries of LANTDIV (North Carolina, Puerto Rico, Virginia, and West Virginia). Most collections required at least partial rehabilitation to comply with federal regulations. Mary J. Bade and Kenneth L. Shingleton.

This one-page summary describes the project, which identified and made recommendations for ways to implement DoD field collecting guidelines and standard curation operating procedures. The report makes 8 recommendations to facilitate the review process and obtain substantive comments and cooperation.

This document summarizes the capabilities/capacity of non-military curation facilities serving active military installations In Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Kansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and the District of Columbia. Susan S. Felix, Amy E. Halpin, Eugene A. Marino, Steve McSween, D. Lynn Murdoch, Julie A. Samerdyke, Kenneth L. Shingleton, and Sylvia Yu.

The U.S, Army Corps of Engineers – St. Louis District inspected all archaeological materials and associated records in the care of NAS North Island, Edwards AFB, Fort Irwin, and MCAGCC Twentynine Palms, as well as the private and university repositories they use. The inspection found widespread deterioration and neglect of many of the Army, Air Force, and Navy’s archaeological collections. Michael K. Trimble and Christopher B. Pulliam.

Despite three episodes of major excavation, no systematic analysis of the recovered artifacts from the Garden Canyon site had been conducted. This project identified, analyzed, and catalogued all of the lithic flakes and tools, ground stone, shell, ceramics, and faunal material collected in three field seasons.

This document reports on a curation needs assessment of 11 facilities in the western U.S. At least 50% of the collections were found to require complete rehabilitation to comply with 36 CFR Part 79.  Michael K. Trimble and Christopher B. Pulliam.

This curation needs assessment study of five installations found that, of the collections stored at 20+ repositories, only three meet the minimum Federal standards as described in 36 CFR Part 79. Thomas B. Meyers and Michael K. Trimble.

This fact sheet describes a provide commanders with comprehensive information on how the conservation of cultural resources contributes to educated planning, economic management of installations and bases, and the enhancement of the military’s mission while meeting DoD’s stewardship responsibilities.

This document discusses the rationale for soil collection and curation, types of samples, and guidelines for collecting, processing, and sorting soil samples.

Archaeology: Guidance (Archives)

This report describes the authors’ efforts to assist Cultural Resource Managers in evaluating damage and taking proactive measures to prevent damage to Traditional Cultural Properties in wildfire events. During a 2007 collaborative symposium, it was determined what procedures to incorporate prior to, during, and after a wildland fire event. Jeffrey Hokanson, Alyssa Wright, and Karen Kempton.

This presentation describes the challenges, issues, trends, and innovations in cultural resource management, particularly archaeology, in the DoD at that time. Laurie Rush and Russell Kaldenberg.

This plan was prepared for use by the U.S. Air Force Molokai Receiver Station facility to help guide and advise on responsibilities and to assist with the protection, preservation, and enhancement of the prehistoric and historic resources under their jurisdiction. Maurice Major. 

This report describes the authors efforts to 1) determine the nature and severity of site protection problems within the Mojave Desert, 2) examine successful site protection programs within the United States, 3) examine the data collected in the first two goals, and 4) summarize the finding and make recommendations regarding the feasibility of developing a regional site protection plan for the Mojave Desert. A. Michael Pappalardo and Matt Goodwin.

This one-page summary describes the development and implementation of systematic methods for evaluating deteriorating nineteenth-century properties, safely removing vegetation, designing feature specific treatments, and implementing site protection, and to demonstrate that these methods can work for a wide range of military installations and many types of historic features. Laurie W. Rush. 

This Historic Preservation Plan was prepared for use by the Commanding Officer and staff of the Kahuku Training Area to help guide and advise on responsibilities and to assist with the protection, preservation, and enhancement of the prehistoric and historic resources under their jurisdiction. Lisa Anderson and Scott Williams. 

Archaeology: Contexts and Survey Reports (Archives)

This report describes the project focused on presenting a consistent method for recording tree carvings created by Basque shepherds. The study presents a thematic landscape approach that will facilitate a programmatic approach to determining NRHP eligibility for historic aspen tree carvings (arborglyphs) found on Department of Defense (DoD) properties. Joxe Mallea-Olaetxe and Judy Berryman.

This report synthesizes archaeological data from nineteenth and early twentieth-century sites that have been identified and/or studied in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. The document focuses on the Antebellum (1830-1860) and Postbellum (also known as Reconstruction and Growth) eras (1865-1917) because the associated sites are frequently difficult to evaluate since the significant research issues that are applicable have not been well-defined. James Rosenthal and Elizabeth Monroe.

This doctoral dissertation discusses a study supporting the thesis that adverse paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Holocene appear to have notably influenced prehistoric cultural evolution in the Southern California Bight region. Radiocarbon dating confirmed changes in prehistoric settlement patterning, indicating a movement toward more reliable water sources, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (AD 650-1250). Andrew Yasko III.

This report describes excavations over three seasons at Beartail Rockshelter at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, including the natural and cultural history of the region with an emphasis on the late Pleistocene and early Holocene environmental and cultural setting for the area; a review and discussion of the material remains recovered from the excavations; discussion of several special analyses including palynological study, radiocarbon dating, and geomorphological analysis of site sediments; and discussion of the investigation’s contributions to our understanding of regional cultural and environmental history. Charles M. Hubbert, Michael B. Collins, Scott C. Meeks, and Catherine C. Meyer.

This report provides information intended to sensitize CRMs in the DoD to the presence of rock art on installations in all regions of the U.S. The document 1) defines the general characteristics of rock art sites in the northeastern U.S., 2) provides a regional context and predictive model for rock art in the study area, 3) analyzes potential threats to rock art sites as a result of military, civilian, or natural activities or factors, and 4) develops recommendations for managing rock art sites on military installations, including techniques for site identification, recordation, and preservation (a basic reference for CRMs on DoD installations within the study region). Christopher R. Polglase, Clement W. Meighan, and Martha R. Williams.

This overview study is intended to provide a summary of what is known about the archaeology of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota as an aid to CRMs. After reviewing the physical setting, culture history, and bioarchaeology of the region by state, a final integrative chapter proposes a series of adaptation types which crosscut traditional political and temporal boundaries. Elizabeth D. Benchley, Blane Nansel, Clark A. Dobbs, Susan M. Thurston Myster, and Barbara H. O’Connell.

This report is a review of the 12,000 years of human occupation in the Northwestern Great Plains states of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Synthesis of the archaeological and bioarchaeological resources under the guise of human adaptation types revealed significant gaps that should be addressed by future research. George C. Grison, and Robert C. Mainfort.

This report provides a summary of the current and past environments of northern Kansas, Nebraska, and northeast Colorado (the Central Great Plains), providing a framework within which to review and discuss changes in prehistoric and historic subsistence economies, technologies, mobility/sedentism, organization, and group interactions. A traditional cultural historical summary is provided for the region from about 20,000 years ago to the historic period. Mary Adair, Matthew E. Hill, Jack L. Hofman, William C. Johnson, Karolyn K. Kinsey, William B. Lees, Brad Logan, Larry D. Martin, Douglas W. Owsley, Kyeong Park, and Karin L. Bruwelheide.

This report includes discussions of rock art recording and analysis, and the archaeological test excavations in two small rockshelters on the Fort Huachuca military reservation. The area was occupied on repeated occasions (not permanently) as a temporary camp used while exploiting mammals and possibly wild plant foods during the 13th century. Jeffrey H. Altschul, Marie Cottrell, Clement W. Meighan, and Ronald H. Towner.

This fact sheet describes archaeological work performed to determine whether this National Register-eligible site, which was previously the subject of Smithsonian excavation in 1920 and has been subjected to looting more recently, retains sufficient integrity. The archaeological work assessed the current state of preservation and the scientific potential of the sites (23PU2, 23PU235, and 23PU255), collected information that contributes to regional research issues, and developed appropriate site preservation plans. U.S. Army.

Archaeology: Underwater Archaeology (Archives)

This file consists of chapters 1-4 of a report describing a project funded under numbers: 02-170, 03-170, 04-170, and 05-170. The project’s primary focus was to acquire requisite data for understanding and characterizing the complex corrosion and deterioration processes affecting Arizona’s hull. The information was then fed into a model to predict the nature and rate of structural changes resulting from corrosion in order to inform management actions. National Park Service – Submerged Resource Center.

The ironclad USS Monitor sank off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in 1862 in a storm and was discovered in 1973. By the early 1990s, the remains were rapidly disintegrating, and this fact sheet discusses the project to prepare the steam engine for recovery, recover the engine, adjust the armor belt support, make progress toward uncovering the turret, and recovering other artifacts in the immediate area. David Alberg. 

This presentation discusses the importance of submerged cultural resources, laws governing submerged cultural resources, why raising artifacts is not advisable, how to identify shipwreck sites, and resources for further information. Benjamin Louis Ford.

This report describes work performed in 2005 to assess corrosion of the submarine’s hull, which led to the expansion of the H.L. Hunley’s cathodic protection system to the interior of the submarine’s ballast tanks. A significant number of complex and fragile artifacts associated with the Hunley were conserved. James W. Hunter III.

This report discusses the foci of the project in 2004: the ongoing forensic research of the vessel’s crew, interment of the remains, completion of the excavation of the submarine’s interior, and the documentation of artifacts recovered during the excavation. The objective of the year’s work was to gather data sufficient to answer critical questions about the H.L. Hunley crewmen and what happened to them and their vessel. Maria Jacobsen.

This article from The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology describes the excavation and technological advancements developed to work with this complex and unstable iron vessel, including discussions of impressed current technologies, automated tank controls and water monitoring systems, laser mapping, fiber optics, database management, in situ x and gamma rays, molding and protection of fragile archaeological features, and protocols for moving artifacts to the laboratory. Paul Mardikian.

This proposal discusses the drawbacks of the then-proposed method of lifting the H.L. Hunley from its resting place through a system of straps and outlines a procedure for a mechanical device to scoop up the submarine and its supporting surrounding sediment. The proposal includes a timetable for construction, testing, demonstration, and actual recovery of the Hunley. Robert M. Adams.

This document describes a detailed plan of the recovery procedure for the H.L. Hunley. Oceaneering International, Inc.

This report discusses the survey operations conducted over the area using nondestructive remote sensing instrumentation, excavation procedures, analyses of cultural materials recovered or observed in situ and the associated contextual environment. It also presents the rationale for recommended site-treatment options. National Park Service, Naval Historical Center, and South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology.

This report presents a discussion of the diving operations, artifact recovery, and imaging of the CSS Alabama conducted in French waters in 2002. Efforts were hampered by technical and weather difficulties. Gordon P. Watts, Jr.

This document reports the activities undertaken during the 2000 investigation of the CSS Alabama, a Confederate commerce raider that sank in a channel off the Normandy Peninsula in 190 feet of water. The paper describes the work, including recovery of a cannon, use of underwater TV to record the exposed wreck structure, recovery of exposed artifacts, steps taken to package and send artifacts to Charleston, South Carolina, for conservation, collection of data for a video mosaic, recordation of the propeller and lifting mechanism, reconnaissance of the bow, and a description of the recovered artifacts. Gordon P. Watts, Jr.

The report discusses the background (discovery of the ship), ownership, French jurisdiction, required permissions and agreements necessary to undertake reconnaissance, funding, equipment, and the results of the two-day reconnaissance. Gordon P. Watts, Jr.

This report builds on a multi-year effort to 1) compile historic and cultural data of U.S. Navy vessels lost in South Carolina waters to document the losses and subsequent wreck history of each vessel, which was used to update the Naval Historical Center’s database of shipwrecks, and 2) conduct remote sensing operations on a limited number of shipwreck sites and areas of naval activities, primarily from the Civil War. A detailed inventory was produced, and the document includes a brief history of U.S. Navy presence in South Carolina and recommendations for the management of these resources. Christopher F. Amer, Joseph Beatty III, Lynn B. Harris, Carleton Naylor, James D. Spirek, and Mark K. Ragan.

The territorial waters of Virginia contain several thousand historically significant shipwrecks from over 400 years of occupation and development by Europeans. This GIS and HARP are tools to effectively protect and manage these resources by locating and assessing submerged shipwreck resources that could be impacted by development and other activities. Gordon P. Watts, Jr.

This is the final report of a site assessment and multi-component remote-sensing survey of the Penobscot River, Penobscot County, Maine. The project was part of an ongoing effort to research, investigate, and document shipwrecks and other submerged archaeological sites associated with the Penobscot Expedition of 1779, and ultimately develop a management plan for their protection and preservation. James W. Hunter III.

This report discusses a project to map and otherwise document a submerged Revolutionary War battlefield where General Benedict Arnold intentionally destroyed five of his own vessels to deprive the British of battle prizes. The project was designed to systematically map the submerged Valcour Island battlefield while providing sport divers a way to channel their interest in history and archaeology into a formally permitted project. Arthur B. Cohn, Adam I. Kane, Christopher R. Sabick, and Edwin R. Scallon.

This survey report summarizes all known information for submerged U.S. naval properties in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands, based on various published and unpublished documents, oral reports, previously completed archaeological investigations, and archival resources. The report includes background information on the environmental setting of Hawaii, prehistoric and historic contexts, potential National Register nominations, and management recommendations. Hans K. Van Tilburg.

This report discusses a 3-year remote sensing survey off the Normandy coast to obtain additional information on U.S. naval losses during Operation Neptune. The Navy History Center will use this data to create a cultural resources management planning document and gain future research baseline data to evaluate site significance. Robert S. Neyland and James S. Schmidt.

The galley Congress was one of five vessels burned in Arnold Bay, Panton, Vermont, in 1776 by Benedict Arnold to prevent their capture by the British. This report of a 2001 inspection of the remains of the Congress discusses the documentation and measurement of scattered parts of the boat and records observations regarding the stability of the site, including the presence of zebra mussels. Arthur B. Cohn. 

The Union ship USS Tecumseh was sunk off Fort Morgan in Mobile Bay, Alabama, in 1864 and found by the Smithsonian in 1967. The USS Tecumseh Commission met in 1993 to discuss the future management and protection of the shipwreck, and this draft plan addressing the ship not as an isolated site but within its historical, geographical, and technological context was produced, the report outlines options and recommendations for the protection and preservation of this tomb of 93 Union sailors. W. Wilson West, Jr.

The report includes a summary of the Navy’s presence in the state of Washington, including various naval installations (e.g., Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Naval Air Stations Seattle, Whidbey Island, and Pasco). The report describes the archival research conducted to account for and characterize the US Navy shipwrecks and submerged aircraft in Washington waters. David Grant, Colt Denfeld, and Randall Schalk.

This report is an overview of the Naval Historical Center’s underwater archaeology branch’s duties and responsibilities in regard to sunken vessels and submerged aircraft. The paper discusses future activities. Bob Neyland.

Archaeology: Tools and Technology (Archives)

This fact sheet describes a project that established the Cultural Resources Logical Data Model (LDM) to be integrated into the overall re-engineered SDSFIE 3.0 LDM by following an accepted and repeatable process, making effective modeling choices and ensuring a “Cultural Resources Community” acceptance and endorsement.

This report describes a project developed and delivered at a pilot workshop that provided instruction on building GIS-based archaeological predictive models to meet the compliance requirements of Section 106 and NEPA. David W. Cushman, Christopher L. Nagle, and Michael Heilen.

This fact sheet describes a project with two objectives in relieving the constraints on training grounds due to changes in military training strategies and where BRAC actions and consolidation of missions will require evaluation and mitigation of effects to large numbers of archaeological sites: 1) Explore ways in which DoD installations can use predictive modeling to reduce the time and expense associated with compliance and attempting to expand archaeological modeling to include the concept of site significance as well as location, and 2) Present an approach for addressing the significance of archaeological sites on a programmatic, rather than case-by-case, basis, saving time and money resources.

The Paleoindian Archaeology and Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Shorelines on Department of Defense (DoD) Installations project maps were developed to aid DoD cultural resource managers identifying potential locations of sites that might yield evidence of Paleomaritime or aquatic culture. This report describes the GIS techniques and datasets employed to generate the maps. Susan Winchell-Sweeney,  Patterson Schackne, and Laurie Rush.

This report describes a workshop of national experts to examine the use of predictive modeling by military installations in November 2004. The participants examined key issues associated with model development and use, discussed successful approaches to improving modeling efforts nationwide, and created some initial guidance for installations planning to use modeling for the first time or hoping to improve or revitalize their use of modeling. Jeffrey Altschul, Terry H. Klein, and Lynne Sebastian.

This project determined which predictive models previously issued by the military have been successful and how they can be used more efficiently and effectively to manage limited cultural resource funds. This project is related to Legacy 03-167. 

This project sought to develop a non-invasive means to identify the locations of prehistoric and historic human burials using geophysical and soil chemistry. With field investigations conducted at rockshelters, open air sites, and historic cemeteries, geophysical investigations were very effective in identifying burials and other cultural features at all site types. Chemical analysis of the soil to verify burial locations appears to hold greatest promise in historic burials. Duane Simpson and Ryan Peterson.

This fact sheet summarizes a project that made further refinements to the Military Cultural Resources Analysis Database (mCRAD), built a regional data model, defined the use community, and populated the model with data from six installations.

This report includes an evaluation of the existing foundation conditions, a limited masonry strength evaluation, and general guidelines to assist in preparing a stabilization plan for structures at Fort Sam Houston. Fugro Consultants LP.

This report expands and elaborates on an earlier model that predicted locations of prehistoric archaeology at Stillwater Marsh by analyzing the economic foraging potential of resource distributions there. A preliminary survey of selected lands administered by three federal agencies determined the predictive power of the model. David W. Zeanah, James A. Carter, Daniel P. Dugas, Robert G. Elston, and Julia E. Hammett.

This document contains arguments for establishing a federal paleontological resources program. Science Applications International Corporation.

This document summarizes a workshop on technologies for the preservation of archaeological sites and structures on December 3-4, 1985.