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DoD Partners in Flight (DoD PIF)

Avian Protection Plans

An Avian Protection Plan (APP) is a program developed to protect and conserve migratory birds by reducing the operational and avian risks that result from avian interactions (electrocutions, collisions) with electric utility facilities. An APP should be specific to the utility or installation for which it is designed, targeting issues and providing solutions applicable to that particular utility or installation. An APP should place emphasis on preventing avian electrocution mortality through identifying areas of high raptor use and retrofitting unsafe utility structures that threaten raptors as well as other avian species. Additionally, the creation of a reporting system for documenting the locations of future avian electrocutions can provide a proactive approach to reduce the number of power outages attributed to raptors and other migratory birds.

The development of an avian protection program provides a number of benefits. The overall goal of an avian protection plan is to reduce avian mortality, but the practical effect of such a plan translates to advantages for an installation’s power supply. Power outages are costly and threaten power reliability. The implementation of an APP will first and foremost protect power supply interests. The expense of retrofitting poles to raptor-safe standards is insignificant compared to the costs associated with repairing power outages, fire management, and violations of avian regulatory laws. The implementation of an APP not only benefits avian species but provides long-term value to the power network and addresses DoD requirements in Executive Order 13186 (EO 13186) and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA).


Reducing Avian Collisions with Power Lines was first published by the Avian Power Line Interaction Committee(APLIC) and Edison Electric Institute (EEI) in 1994 under the title Mitigating Bird Collisions with Power Lines. The 2012 edition of this manual provides electric utilities, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders with guidance for reducing bird collisions with power lines based on the most current information. This is especially important given the need to reduce bird injury and mortality from collisions, comply with bird protection laws, and enhance the reliability of electrical energy delivery. This PDF is a sample. To order the 2012 collision manual, click here.

Created by the Edison Electric Institute, APLIC, and the California Energy Commission, this publication summarizes the history and success of over three decades of work, and three previous editions of Suggested Practices, and has been expanded and updated to assist those concerned with complying with federal laws, protecting and enhancing avial populations, and maintaining the reliability of electric power networks.

A Joint Document Prepared By The Edison Electric Institute’s Avian Power Line Interaction Committee (APLIC) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The APP Guidelines presented in this document are intended to serve as a “tool box” from which a utility can select and tailor components applicable to its specific needs. These guidelines are intended to be used in conjunction with APLIC’s Suggested Practices for Raptor Protection on Power Lines: The State of the Art in 2006.