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National Defense Center for Energy & Environment (NDCEE)

Historical Technology Downloads

The Air Force Enterprise Energy Dashboard (Dashboard) is sponsored by SAF/IEN, and is designed to provide common-sight views of energy performance throughout the USAF and provide access to valuable energy resources. The Dashboard leverages the flexibility and accessibility of Microsoft Office SharePoint®, which resides on the Air Force Network Integration Center (AFNIC) Enterprise Information Services (EIS) site, and is accessible by all authenticated USAF users. The Dashboard supports the following focus areas:

Key Performance Indicators (Scorecard) – Provides senior leaders and other Dashboard users with a visual snapshot of overall performance towards USAF Energy Plan goals.

Metrics – Provides consistent views and access to data for sixteen metrics that measure aviation, facility, and ground vehicle energy performance.

Library of Knowledge – Provides a robust and searchable collection of energy documents, energy policies, definitions, and acronyms.

Energy Initiatives – Tracks the funding status of energy initiatives advocated for by the USAF Energy Governance Structure.

Energy Investments – Identifies the historic, current, and planned USAF energy investment portfolio and allows users to filter, slice-and-dice, and visualize portfolio data as needed.

Schedule – Displays an anticipated schedule of recurring USAF energy governance, management, and reporting activities to ensure on-time execution.

Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Status – Tracks the progress and anticipated transition of USAF energy research and development.

Energy Governance Workspace – Provides the components of the USAF Energy Governance Structure with a user-friendly interface for organizing, sharing, and maintaining information.

Statement of Need
The United States Air Force (USAF) must reduce energy consumption and increase the portion of their renewable energy to meet a variety of Federal, DoD, and internal energy goals. In order to meet these goals, the USAF established a comprehensive energy program and an Energy Plan led by the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Energy (SAF/IEN). The USAF Energy Plan is used to communicate enterprise goals, objectives, and metrics across all USAF functional domains and external audiences. In 2010, SAF/IEN developed an interactive, web-based reporting tool, the Air Force Enterprise Energy Management Framework Dashboard (AFEEFD) to provide centralized access to metrics and energy resources that support the Energy Plan. The AFEEFD leverages the flexibility and accessibility of Microsoft SharePoint®, which resides on the Air Force Network Integration Center Enterprise Information Services site, and is accessible by all authenticated USAF users.

Statement of Need
The United States Air Force (USAF) must reduce energy consumption and increase the portion of their renewable energy to meet a variety of Federal, DoD, and internal energy goals. In order to meet these goals, the USAF established a comprehensive energy program, led by the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Energy (SAF/IEN). Under direction from SAF/IEN, the Air Force released its initial Energy Plan in 2010, followed by an updated plan in 2013. These Plans communicate enterprise goals, objectives, and metrics across all USAF functional domains and external audiences. In 2010, the NDCEE in coordination with SAF/IEN developed an interactive, web-based reporting tool, the Air Force Enterprise Energy Management Framework Dashboard (AFEEFD) to provide centralized access to metrics and energy resources that support the Energy Plan. The Dashboard was further developed and demonstrated under Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Task 0002 and NDCEE Task Orders 0742, 0809, and 0826. This Task is necessary to complete USAF requirements to develop, demonstrate, validate, and transfer the AFEEFD to the senior leadership and policy makers, which will provide them with a rapid, real-time energy metric and data tracking system in order to make effective investment and policy decisions.

Results and Benefits
The outcome was a pilot process that used GIS to compile land cover data in coordination with current county, state, and EPA TMDL modeling, calculation of nutrient and sediment loads for various Army facilities, and a prioritization of Army point and non-point source opportunities to comply with the proposed Chesapeake Bay TMDL. Implementation of the pilot process was documented in the TMDL Gap Analysis Cumulative Report, TMDL Baseline Assessment Reports, and Watershed Implementation Plan Model and TMDL Monitoring Strategy documents. A detailed outline of the steps taken to implement the pilot process was documented in a Guidebook and presented during training sessions.

Technical Approach
The NDCEE team developed and demonstrated a blended Air Force SST course that provides new supervisors with basic understanding of OSHA, DoD and Air Force safety program requirements. This was achieved by: 1) developing and demonstrating an online computer based training (CBT) course; and 2) developing and demonstrating an interactive instructor-led classroom course and providing a comprehensive instructor manual and student guides.

Results and Benefits
The SST blended training course intent is to provide first time supervisors the knowledge/tools/instruction they need in an efficient and effective amount of time. The CBT provides the basic Air Force safety knowledge that prepares the student for the classroom training. The classroom course material/training provides the student with a discussion based course where first time supervisors can relate to, observe and discuss how to manage safety/risk, report, recognize and eliminate, or reduce, occupational safety and health hazards in their workplace.

Statement of Need
The intent of the Army’s Net Zero (NZ) Initiative originated from energy-related federal mandates, including Executive Order (EO) 13514 Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05) and the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. On 19 April 2011, the Army identified 17 pilot installations striving to bring the overall consumption of resources within their respective assigned category down to an effective rate of zero by 2020. The pilot installations have and will continue to serve as model communities for sustainability and quality of life while the Army applies the NZ concept to all Army Installations.

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced by the chemical reaction of alcohol and animal or vegetable oils, fats, or greases. Through a refining process called transesterification, the glycerin, a byproduct that can damage engines, is removed. Biodiesel can be made from a variety of feedstocks including soybean oil, animal fats, algae, and vegetable oils. It ranges in color from gold to brown, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure, is immiscible with water, and has a tendency to gel at low temperatures. Biodiesel may contain a small but problematic amount of water. Biodiesel can be used in petrodiesel engines in its pure form or in different blends. Pure biodiesel is referred to as B100; B20 contains 20% biodiesel and 80% petrodiesel and can be used in unmodified diesel engines. While biodiesel reduces dependence on petroleum, it has its uncertainties that must be addressed, including fuel stability in storage tanks, potential to increase vehicle maintenance requirements,
and compatibility with fuel delivery and storage infrastructures.
The executed ESTCP Demonstration Plan will evaluate three aspects of biodiesel use in non-deployed tactical vehicles: fuel stability, vehicle performance, and maintenance considerations.

Statement of Need
United States (U.S.) Army Product Manager Force Sustainment Systems (PdM-FSS) provides equipment, systems, and technical support to sustain and improve the environments in which soldiers live, train, and operate, enhancing combat effectiveness and quality of life. The PdM-FSS Base Camp Integration Laboratory (BCIL), located at Fort Devens, MA, enables the Army and the Joint Services to evaluate future technologies in a live Soldier environment, providing solutions to reduce the energy demand and logistical burden on base camps. PdM-FSS is investigating the feasibility of use of currently available technologies that enable incinerating latrine waste in order to avoid the storage and retention ponding of black water, reduce logistical footprint, and improve environmental responsibility. The intent is to demonstrate a system to destroy the latrine byproduct at small base camps before black water treatment is required. Typically, at small and extra small base camps, the infrastructure may not be available, due to logistics or cost, to treat low volume latrine waste water streams. In an effort to reduce hauling of waste to other camps for treatment, latrine waste disposal is typically contracted out, which has minimal cost savings, if any. Additionally, allowing contracted support into base camps is a security risk to the camp as well as the contractor. PdM-FSS has identified an incinerating toilet system for potential implementation at base camps. The system consists of a self-contained toilet and incinerating system. Before this system can be implemented, the environmental, safety and occupational health (ESOH) performance of the system must be validated.

Statement of Need
The National Park Service (NPS) has made significant strides in safety since 2010. NPS leadership is committed to responding quickly to and sharing lessons about serious accidents and with critical conversations that are driving change in safety culture. NPS leadership and management identified gaps in their knowledge pertaining directly to safety, responsibilities, training, and communication. The NPS committed to a shared goal of a sustainable safety culture that embraces employee health and wellness. This effort supported the mission by improvements leading to better safety performance and continuously reducing employee fatality and injury rates.

Under this task, the NDCEE conducted a search of the Army’s electrical connector requirements. This involvedresearching U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research,Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC)databases to obtain pertinent information about electricalconnector coating types that are used in four weaponssystems: Abrams (M1, M1A1, M1A2), Family of HeavyTactical Vehicles (FHTV), Family of Medium TacticalVehicles (FMTV), and Stryker. The search resulted in theidentification of the most commonly used connector typesby specification. In addition, the NDCEE reviewed workthat has been done on alternative cadmium and hexavalentchromium processes to identify potential alternative coatings,associated post-treatments, available test data, and testdata voids. The review included past evaluations conductedby the NDCEE, work completed under the Joint CadmiumAlternatives Team, and a literature search to identify workdone by the electrical connector industry. The reviewresulted in the identification of five cadmium alternatives(electrodeposited aluminum [AlumiPlate®], electroplatedzinc-nickel (Zn-Ni), electroplated tin-zinc (Sn-Zn), and twocomposite electroless nickel [DurmalonTM and PolymerInfused Nickel (PIN)]) and two viable alternatives tohexavalent chromium post-treatments (trivalent chromiumand nonchromate processes).

A TMDL is the calculation of the maximum amount of pollution a body of water can receive on a daily basis and still meet state water quality standards designed to ensure waterways are safe, swimmable, and fishable. The CWA requires that a TMDL be written for all segments of a waterway that fail to meet water quality standards. Most of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal waters do not meet these
standards and are listed as impaired.

The NDCEE has developed a transferable process and guidance document that uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to compile land use data in coordination with current EPA TMDL modeling to establish facility loads, evaluate existing BMPs, and prioritize compliance opportunities for Army point and nonpoint sources. Data collection tools were developed and utilized for the TMDL Gap Analysis, TMDL Baseline Assessments, and BMP Evaluations. In addition, modeling methodologies and spreadsheets for calculating nutrient and sediment loads and reductions resulting from BMP implementation have been developed and implemented for the TMDL Baseline Assessments and BMP Evaluations. Lastly, a Guidebook, a Training Curriculum, and training materials were developed and training was provided to DoD and Federal facilities and agencies on conducting similar TMDL evaluations.

Results and Benefits
The demonstration and validation of CERDIP confirmed the need for a standardized process for collecting, visualizing and downloading geospatial data for significant CHN sites to support DoD operations. CERDIP was shown to provide geospatial data of value to USARAF and AFRICOM military planners that can be easily replicated in other regions. The resulting standardized CERDIP geospatial data schema and the leveraged PDC visualization platform were shown to be valuable for use in operational planning, e.g., the siting of contingency bases and logistic hubs; and for military training and engagement activities with partner militaries. Monetary and diplomatic risk is reduced if the Warfighter is provided better situational awareness of recognized nationally and internationally sensitive protected sites, allowing for less disruptive, and alternative movement and concentration of forces where possible. The CERDIP data schema also heavily influenced the final template for a No Strike List (NSL) under development by the U.S. Committee for the Blue Shield.

Capturing sunlight.Daylighting systems capture daylight on a building’s roof or sidewall either passively with a stationary mirror/prism or actively via a mirrored mechanism that tracks the angle of the sun throughout the day.

Transmitting sunlight.The daylight captured on the roof or sidewall must be transmitted to the desired area. Daylighting systems accomplish this either: (1) directly by redirecting sunlight into a space using architectural features, (2) indirectly through tubes using mirrors to enhance light transmission, or (3)through fiber optics.

The specific daylighting technologies that the NDCEE investigated were:

SunTracker ONE by Ciralight Corp.This system actively collects light using sun-tracking mirrors and transmits the light to an interior location through an opening in the roof.

Hybrid-Solar Lighting (HSL) 3010 by Sunlight Direct, Inc. A roof-mounted active mirror collection device is used in this system. Light is then transmitted to the room-level hybrid solar lights via fiber optic cables.

SolaTubeTM System by SolaTube International, Inc.The SolaTube system passively collects daylight using a light-bending reflector mechanism and transmits the light through an opening in the roof to room level.

Densifiers are standard pieces of equipment in the recycling and waste management industries, increasing mass per unit of volume of the waste stream. Densification processes include shredding/grinding/particle reduction, compression, pelletizing, and briquetting.

In pelletizing, ground material is forced through a cylindrical die by rollers. In a flat die pelletizer, the die is stationary while the rollers push the material through; a ring die machine allows the rollers to stay stationary while the die spins, pushing the material through the rollers. The final product is a cylinder with a diameter between 6 and 8 millimeters and no longer than 38 millimeters.

Briquetting is a molding process that allows dried material to be compressed into a flammable block, which can be used as a source of energy or heat. A briquette machine works by applying pressure to the feedstock. The pressure generates some heat; with some machines additional heat is added from hydraulics and/or heaters. During compression, raw material in the feedstock liberates adhesives that allow the briquette to form. A briquette is at least 25 millimeters (approximately 1 inch or more) in diameter. Like pellets, briquettes are extremely compacted, making it easier to transport and store
than loose raw material. A significant advantage of a briquette is its higher fixed carbon
and calorific value.

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from the densification of waste materials can be used in many types of energy systems including coal/biomass boilers and some waste-to-energy (WTE) systems based on gasification or pyrolysis. Some WTE systems incorporate densification as part of the feedstock preparation process.

Technical Approach
The NDCEE will conduct 3 regional sustainable product demonstrations, in the Hawaii/Pacific Northwest, Mid-Atlantic/Southeast, and Midwest/Central United States regions, to validate performance of the candidate products to military requirements. The sustainable product categories include, but are not limited to, the following areas: biobased/biopreferred, recycled content, energy efficient, water efficient, EPEAT registered, environmentally preferable, non-ozone depleting, and non-toxic or less-toxic alternatives. The project team will prepare a Product Demonstration Plan for each different product to be demonstrated prior to the site visits that is tailored to meet the installation needs, and that has been coordinated with and approved by the installation and TM.

Statement of Need
The DoD Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP), Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR), Presidential Memoranda, and multiple Executive Orders (EOs) direct the military services to use sustainable products as alternatives to currently used non-sustainable or “brown” products. The performance of these new sustainable alternatives must be proven to meet DoD specifications and operational requirements. To increase awareness and compliance with Federal sustainability directives, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has executed several tasks involving the evaluation and demonstration of green products in operational environments at DoD installations through the NDCEE.

Technical Approach
Laser coating removal is an alternative technology to the currently utilized coating removal methods. It has been demonstrated in recent years that a laser-assisted coating removal system has the potential to offer significant environmental improvements and cost reduction in depot operations. NDCEE Task N. 793 will develop, validate, and demonstrate, in an operational environment, the use of laser coatings removal technology for the full aircraft processes performed at Air Logistics Centers (ALC). This task will leverage on-going and previously completed work by the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)that combines laser coating removal technology with robotic manipulation systems as an environmentally acceptable replacement for traditional coatings removal processes. This task is comprised of two related efforts to demonstrate and provide the capability for automated coatings removal of fighter and cargo aircraft processed at Ogden ALC (OO-ALC).

Technical Approach
Under this effort the NDCEE will identify current anodizing processes and coatings systems used at Oklahoma City Air Logistics Complex (OC-ALC), Warner Robins Air Logistics Complex (WR-ALC), Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), and Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) and determine the applicability of the non-Cr anodizing sealer to each facility. Requirements/performance criteria will be identified for implementation of the non-Cr anodizing sealer at each facility and a transition plan will be developed. An alternative non-Cr anodizing sealer and a secondary sealer (if required) will be demonstrated with coating systems at OC-ALC and WR-ALC per facility requirements including quality, corrosion resistance, and paint adhesion. A cost-benefit analysis will be conducted to determine the economic feasibility of implementing the successfully demonstrated alternative non-Cr anodizing sealer and secondary sealer at OC-ALC and WR-ALC. The NDCEE will review demonstration results with OC-ALC and WR-ALC personnel to assist in transitioning the non-Cr anodizing sealer to OC-ALC and WR-ALC and support the development of National Stock Numbers (NSNs).

Technical Approach
The NDCEE will develop, demonstrate, and validate a standardized industrial hygiene field survey process to improve the quality and quantity of IH information in DOEHRS-IH with standardized field IH processes across a wide range of Army worksites. Specifically, this task will demonstrate and validate process improvements following the DoD IH Exposure Assessment Model (EAM) with particular focus on steps 5-8:
1. Define Scope and Support of Resources
2. Basic Characterization
3. Similar Exposure Group
4. Develop Worksite Monitoring Plan
5. Characterize Exposures
6. Assess Exposures and Provide Control Plan
7. Reporting and Recording
8. Re-Evaluation

The demonstration will span eight installations and include training of Army IH practitioners in process improvements. Demonstrated improvements to IH data collection and management associated with
the EAM can be mandated for use by the U.S. Army MEDCOM across the Army to improve resource decisions and occupational health.

Statement of Need
Department of Defense (DoD) requires the capability to safely and cost effectively demilitarize excess, obsolete, and unserviceable military munitions. Based on decades of operational experience, Open Burning (OB) and Open Detonation (OD) treatment are proven safe, effective, and economical approaches for demilitarization (demil) of many waste military munitions. The OB and OD operations that treat Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) – regulated energetic wastes are subject to Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 264.600 (Subpart X) and generate pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act. Subpart X permit applicants must: (1) evaluate the operation’s impacts on groundwater, subsurface environment, surface water, wetlands, soil surface, and air; and, (2) demonstrate that any release from the operation will not adversely affect human health or the environment. Demonstrating compliance with these performance standards is particularly challenging due to the unconfined and violent nature of OB/OD reactions. A riskbased approach is used as the primary basis for establishing site-specific measures that are protective of human health and the environment.

The purpose of this overall Task is to leverage accomplishments under previous NDCEE Task Orders 0707 and 0800 to create an Environmental and Energy Technology Implementation Plan for the Industrial Base. The purpose of the Environmental and Energy Technology Implementation Plan is to make recommendations for greater effectiveness and efficiencies in ESOHE areas within the lifecycle of the ammunition industrial base operations through implementation of new and innovative technologies. To establish the recommendations for the industrial base, this Task will first develop the baseline conditions for both the ammunition production and demilitarization facilities. This baseline information will then be utilized to perform economic and life-cycle analysesof current and proposed technologies at Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HSAAP), Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RFAAP) and Lake City Army Ammunition Plant (LCAAP). Both production and emilitarization computer models will be created to house the baseline information and allow for more efficient decision making. Several technologies recommended under the previous tasks will be analyzed and technology transition plans will be developed. These efforts will then be summarized into the final deliverable, Environmental and Energy Technology Implementation Plan for the Industrial Base.

Statement of Need
Dangerous forms of counterfeit or contaminated R-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane or HFC-134a) has been found in refrigerant supplies worldwide. These refrigerant blends may be flammable or contain banned chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Documented instances include military vehicles returning from Afghanistan that had their Air Conditioning (A/C) systems serviced while deployed there. The Army’s Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is working to develop procedures for the identification and safe removal of contaminated refrigerant blends in vehicles. In order to finalize these procedures, the Army needed to understand the effects of the contaminated blends on A/C system seals and hoses.

Statement of Need
The Army currently performs hard chrome plating and nickel plating at depots on components refurbished for Army materiel. These processes, which utilize hazardous materials, particularly hexavalent chromium, pose a risk to personnel and sustainability due to future regulatory pressure. Efforts to replace these hazardous processes with less hazardous ones are in work throughout the Department of Defense (DoD). Current alternative technologies rely on line of sight (LOS) methods for application. However, it is unknown how many components can be processed by LOS technologies or if research and development (R&D) investment in non line of sight (NLOS) technologies is required to address replacement of these legacy processes. A survey was required to answer this question.

Statement of Need
Aluminum-scandium (Al-Sc) alloys have shown promise for armor application in future DoD weapon systems. Initial mechanical and ballistics trials of 1-inch thick plates indicate significant performance gains beyond the currently used Al-alloy 5059-H131. Further refinements and optimizations in the composition and processing of these alloys, to be used for armor and structural plates, are needed for military weapon systems application and are expected to result in gains in mechanical and physical properties, such as increased material strength and decreased weight. The refinements and optimizations will include potential constituent modifications to utilize less costly materials, i.e.
alternatives to Sc. These gains would translate to decreased fuel consumption and significantly less mechanical wear on the main drive train components for ground weapon systems over the system’s lifecycle.

Statement of Need
Lake City Army Ammunition Plant (LCAAP), a government owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facility located in Independence, MO, is the Department of Defense’s (DoD) only manufacturing facility for small caliber ammunition (i.e., 5.56mm, 7.62mm, and caliber [Cal.] 50). To ensure efficient and sustainable operations, it is imperative to improve operations at LCAAP to adapt to increased environmental regulations and production demands. Numerous individual technologies being investigated are interlaced and a modification to one of these technologies ultimately has an effect on the others and therefore all must be addressed using a Design to Production
(D2P) approach. This Task continued to build upon previous efforts conducted for the Modernization and Green Ammunition programs that are expected to continue through the LCAAP contract transition period. The intent of all these projects is to improve production efficiency, reduce environmental impact, ensure environmental compliance, minimize environmental resources needed for production, and reduce energy consumption and operating costs at LCAAP.

The selected mobile waste water treatment technology, AX-Mobile by Orenco Systems, Inc., is capable of supporting a contingency base of 100 to 200 soldiers, depending on the model. The units can be used in series to treat even larger base sizes. The treatment technology is a multi-stage unit incorporated into two 20-ISO containers (5,000 gallons per day) or two 40-ISO containers (10,000 gallons per day) for convenient transportation. Solids are settled in the primary tank which includes an aeration unit. The secondary container is a multiple-pass, packed bed, textile media filter expected to treat wastewater to a level that exceeds secondary treatment standards. The textile media has a large surface area and void volume for free flow of oxygen. The biological film that develops on the filter media reduces the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) in the wastewater. In addition, the secondary treatment unit also includes an ultraviolet component for eliminating pathogens in the treated wastewater.

The unit also includes a wireless cellular telemetry which is capable of providing performance information, notifying the user of alarms, and providing remote operation. The unit can be powered by a tactical combat diesel generator. The distinguishing features of the unit are its low energy consumption, low operation and maintenance costs, and ability to treat fluctuating flows and shock loads. The technology vendor also claims the unit has the capability to treat wastewater containing limited amounts of blue water from portable toilets used at contingency bases. This blue water contains biocides such as formaldehyde that interfere with wastewater treatment processes.

Anticipated Results and Benefits
Improvements for operational efficiency that also meet harsh environmental operating conditions have the potential to reduce manpower requirements, reduce fuel use, and achieve overall cost savings. The NDCEE will prepare a detailed Dem/Val Plan under this effort with estimates to retrofit up to 30 carts. The Dem/Val Plan will provide the Government with a roadmap for further validation of proposed modifications to existing light carts and will incorporate lessons learned from other alternative lighting technology efforts in the Department of Defense. Using the results of the light system capabilities testing, the Dem/Val Plan will outline the resources necessary to complete the proposed modifications. It will describe how performance data must be collected in order to evaluate the impact of the retrofits to reducing energy use and maintenance burden in support of a cost-benefit analysis. The Dem/Val Plan will present potential locations for the demonstration and estimate the level of effort necessary to execute.

Technical Approach
In order to complete the objectives of the task, the NDCEE applied the concepts, principals and approach developed for Net Zero Installations Initiative to a single CB pilot site. The location of the pilot site was determined by stakeholders at Headquarters Department of the Army (HQDA) and the applicable Combatant Commands (COCOMs). The site selected was Camp Buehring, Kuwait. This site was selected because it is an isolated location, not self-sufficient or connected to any host nation infrastructure for energy or water. All food, fuel for generators and vehicles, water, and garbage is transported in or out. The NDCEE: 1) characterized the water and energy use and waste streams at Camp Buehring; 2) developed a baseline of water and energy usage and waste streams and presented them in a Water Balance Study, Energy Audit, and Material Flow Analysis Report for the Camp; 3) prioritized the best potential projects and activities for Camp Buehring and presented them in a Net Zero Action Plan; 4) conducted a demonstration of one action from the Action Plan; 5) developed recommendations for potential scale-up and technology transition, and 6) conducted a policy study on applicability of Net Zero to contingency operations. The second purpose of this task was to develop and demonstrate a software tool to identify the most efficient and effective energy projects to support an optimal Army enterprise-wide energy investment portfolio. The tool was demonstrated and validated using: (1) historical energy project data gathered from previous Program Objective Memorandum (POM) cycles; and 2) current energy data gathered at Net Zero Energy pilot installations.

Results and Benefits
The NDCEE provided the tools and the support necessary for DLA to improve their OSHMS so that it has the capability to include enterprise programs management at the DLA sites. The OSH program management was improved to a level sufficient to help DLA achieve its strategic OSH goals, including advancing in their pursuit of VPP Star at their locations.

A generic WTE conversion process can be broken down into three general challenges: feedstock conditioning, conversion into a fuel product, and power generation. Feedstock conditioning includes actions taken to improve the raw waste stream, including manual operations such as sorting and segregation and mechanical processes such as shredding and densification. With conversion, prepared feedstock is transformed into a gaseous or liquid fuel product. Power generation includes the means by which the fuel product is converted into electricity, minimally to self-power the process, but ideally to generate a surplus that can be used to power other organizational equipment.

The OFWEC operates from two 20ý ISO containers: a fuel processing system and the BioMax® downdraft gasification system. The fuel processing system consists of a shredder and a briquette system. The densified feedstock, in the form of cylindrical ýbriquettes,ý are sent to a patented gasifier to be converted into producer gas and some residue char/ash. The producer gas is very different chemically from natural gas, but both can be burned to provide heat and/or power. The OFWEC gas is sent to a standard Army-issued 60-kilowatt Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG) adapted for bi-fuel operation.

The OFWEC III gasifier consumes about 50 pounds (lbs) of dry biomass per hour at full power and produces about 65 normal cubic meters per hour or approximately 40 standard cubic feet per minute of producer gas. The yield of char/ash is dependent upon the ash content of the feedstock, but is usually less than 2% of the dry biomass fed or less than 1 lb/hr. Trash typically has higher ash contents and higher char yield.

Technical Approach
This task will provide the necessary technical VPP challenge program expertise through on-site corrective action and off-site technical expertise support to the eight (8) identified DLA Distribution organizations. In addition the team will create an OSHA Challenge Pilot Program Instructional Manual specific to DLA Distribution Operations that will step a Distribution Depot through all the OSHA Challenge Pilot Program initiatives.

Anticipated Results and Benefits
The NDCEE will provide the tools and the support necessary for DLA Distribution to improve their OSH-MS. The program management will be improved to a level sufficient to help DLA achieve its strategic occupational safety and health goals, including completing OSHA Challenge, advancing in their possible pursuit of VPP Star at their locations.

PV solar cells convert the light of the sun directly into electricity. Numerous types of PV technologies are available to collect and use solar energy.

In 2010, two types of PV technologies, thin film and crystalline panels, were installed on a carport at Fort Hood. Monocrystalline PV panels are covered with singlecell silicon crystal wafers; thin film panels have one or more layers of a thin film – amorphous silicon in the NDCEE demonstration – applied to a substrate. The system components include: monocrystalline PV panels, thin film PV panels, direct current (DC) combiner boxes, a DC disconnect to isolate the PV panels from the inverter, an alternating current (AC) disconnect to isolate the inverter from the utility grid, and an inverter to convert the DC power generated by the PV panels into AC electricity to be used by the site. The NDCEE gathered data during the demonstration period to quantify installation issues, hourly power generation, peak power generation, total energy generation, efficiency, output degradation, maintenance requirements, and cost savings (procurement, maintenance, output).

At Camp Katuu, the PV array has a nominal DC rating of 42kW, and is roof mounted on the Builder’s Shop. Final power rating and design of the PV system was based upon capabilities and requirements associated with base loads, base generation, and the local utility to ensure compatibility. The system was designed to maximize the system rating while including access ways for easy installation, maintenance, and repair. A pre-engineered roof top fall protection safety rail system was also incorporated to enhance sustainability by supporting PV panel’s installation and maintenance requirements. Since Palau is a warm, humid climate with salty sea air, corrosion of the PV array is a concern. To mitigate the corrosion concern, the selected PV module has been tested and verified to withstand corrosion by the manufacturer. In addition, a barrier material was installed between roof connections to prevent galvanic corrosion. Finally, the fastening hardware for the frame mounting system was assembled and subjected to ASTM B117 corrosion testing to confirm system’s ability to limit corrosion levels.

Statement of Need
The NDCEE will provide technical and analytical expertise to Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) in support of the MH-60R, MH-60S, and HH-60H Multi Mission Helicopters (MMH). Areas of focus include improved maintainability and decreased downtime for the war fighter through the implementation of conductive polyurethane gaskets. Production improvements will result in corrosion prevention,
waste minimization, and elimination of rework all leading to a reduction in total ownership cost of the fleet.

Technical Approach
The NDCEE will assess and determine the most appropriate demonstration location at RFAAP. This assessment will include the review of wastewater constituents and concentrations as well as geographical location, access, and other site-specific characteristics. Once the demonstration site is selected, a continuous counter-current ion exchange (CCIX) technology and associated resin will be determined and the technology configuration will be identified and prepared for the demonstration phase. The demonstration will be performed over a period of six (6) months. The first demonstration
trial will occur during the fall of 2014, following the CCIX technology set-up, system validation, and training. The trials will include sampling and analysis of raw wastewater, treated wastewater, and by-product as well as operational analyses and system optimization. At the conclusion of the demonstration period, the pilot CCIX and wastewater collection system will be decommissioned and removed from RFAAP.

The NDCEE will demonstrate and validate a solar thermal radiant heat flooring system at the PTA, which is located in a rural area on Hawaii Island. The NDCEE is currently installing the solar thermal radiant heat flooring system in one of PTA’s barracks buildings. Following a technology assessment, the team selected a closed loop system with heat transfer fluid. The main components of the system are solar collectors, a storage tank, a radiant heat emitter in the floor, circulation pumps, a thermostat and electronic controls, and a heat dissipater. In addition to supplying heat, the system could be modified to include domestic water heating.

The system design includes seven 4-foot by 10-foot flat panel collectors with an output of 35,600 BTU/day. They are arranged side-by-side on the south-facing pitch of the roof and are racked at a 30 degree angle to maximize collection of winter sun. Based on the flow rate of the system and the number of collectors, a tank capable of storing approximately 600 gallons was selected. This tank has a vertical orientation for a small footprint and better stratification. Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing was installed over the existing concrete floor, and a layer of concrete was poured over the tubing. Solar-heated fluid is flowing through approximately 4,000 feet of tubing in the floor,
emitting heat to the room at night.

Statement of Need
Federal procurement policies and regulations direct Federal agencies, including the Department of Defense (DoD) to give procurement preference to sustainable products when they are available and meet performance requirements. All Services within the DoD are required to improve their sustainable procurement performance in order to comply with federal regulations, Executive Orders (EO) and directives; reduce dependency on foreign oil; and lessen DoD’s environmental impact. Improving sustainable procurement practices at DoD facilities enhances mission readiness while protecting human health and the environment and further incentivizing the sustainable economy.

A commercially available product called MuniRem®, produced by PLANTECO Environmental Consultants, LLC, is an environmentally benign chemical mixture that has been shown to sequester heavy metals and remediate explosive compounds, such as 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT). Under this task, the NDCEE will first review available literature/documentation related to past studies regarding removing explosives contamination from metal surfaces and groundwater by PLANTECO. This information will be used to develop a Field Protocol for the Application of MuniRem® to Remove Explosives from Metal Surfaces and a Field Pilot Test Plan for the Application of MuniRem® to Remove Explosives from Groundwater. Upon c completion of the literature review, the Team will conduct a field validation utilizing a batch reactor to evaluate the ability of MuniRem® to treat explosives contamination on metal surfaces. The MuniRem® will be customized based on the reported test conditions, explosives types, and types of scrap metal. In addition, the Team will conduct bench-scale testing utilizing synthetic groundwater to obtain data that will be leveraged in the development of a Field Protocol for the Application of MuniRem® to Remove Explosives from Groundwater. The NDCEE Team will independently execute this Field Protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of MuniRem® as an in-situ treatment method for explosives contamination in groundwater.

The purpose of this Task is to conduct laboratory validation testing of the SafePort” system for the quantitation of perchlorate and heavy metals in drinking and environmental water matrices. These objectives will be achieved by completing the following activities: 1) Develop a test plan for the analytical validation of the SafePort” hardware chassis with the microfluidic chips for the quantitation of perchlorate and heavy metals within drinking water and ground water; 2) Execute the testing in accordance with the Governmentapproved test plan; and 3) Develop technical reports as a result of the laboratory validation testing.

Gasification transforms organic materials such as biomass or municipal solid waste (MSW) into a synthesis gas that can be burned directly in internal combustion engines. The WTE equipment planned for the demonstration is All Power Labs (APL) Power Pallet. The 20-kilowatt (kW) Power Pallet is a complete gasification system. The Power Pallet is comprised of a gasifier, gas engine, and generator that are synchronized and governed by a digital controller. The system automatically calibrates and
controls the syngas and air mixture, grate-shaking, and ash take-off. This system includes a gasifier, stainless steel hearth, fuel hopper, gas cowling and ash handling, cyclone, packed bed filter, ejector venturi gas pump, fuel air mixer, swirl burner, and instrumentation.

The Power Pallet is the result of research in electronic control and waste heat recycling. Hot output syngas and internal combustion engine exhaust augment the thermal processes in a gasifier. The result is higher combustion temperature for improved tar conversion, increased tolerance for high moisture fuels, and increased gasifier efficiency.

These processes are all controlled by a Process Control Unit (PCU). The Power Pallet includes an air tight hopper which can hold enough feedstock for 6-8 hours of continuous operation. A mechanized auger feeds the waste into the gasifier. The auger is automated and only feeds waste when it is needed. The Power Pallet is designed for ease of service and can be maintained by most engine or generator mechanics.

Like most places, Fort Hood has traditionally used potable water to irrigate its golf course. By definition, potable water is treated water. To replace the potable water, a pumping station was installed at the Landfill Lake and integrated with the base-wide water supply delivery system.

This innovative pumping station contains the following components: 1) an adequately sized water pump; 2) a generator to provide a steady supply of sufficient electricity in the remote location to power the motor; 3) a properly sized fuel storage tank for the generator; and, 4) a concrete pad for the pump and generator and a containment system for the fuel tank.

The pumping station at Landfill Lake requires a generator to power the motor to drive the water pump. The decision to use biofuel is multi-faceted and the biofuel of choice would be biodiesel. Biodiesel supplied to the generator would be made from the combination of organic oils such as soybean, canola oil, or other waste vegetable oils with other products to create and alternative fuel similar to petroleum-based diesel fuel; hence the use of the term, ‘green fuel’.

A zero-energy house produces as much energy as it consumes when averaged on an annual basis. To achieve this goal, housing energy needs are reduced through innovative design, energy-efficient technologies, and construction techniques. Houses can then be powered using renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind.

The NDCEE uses three primary tools to assist with the design of energy-efficient and zero-energy housing: integrated design, energy modeling, and lifecycle cost analysis. Integrated design replaces the traditional sequential design process by integrating multiple disciplines early in the process to help identify and optimize systems, resulting in a reduction of overall energy usage and costs. Energy modeling uses computer simulation to estimate the energy performance impact of building elements and systems. Lifecycle cost analysis is used in conjunction with energy modeling to evaluate both first costs and life-time building operation costs.

For the Hawaii houses, energy modeling and lifecycle cost analysis were used to rank ZEH concepts by performance and cost. Based on findings, the demonstration featured solar attic fans for ventilation, house coatings that contain reflective additives to reduce solar absorption, and radiant barriers that reflect heat rather than absorb it like other insulation materials (fiberglass, foam, etc.). At Fort Campbell, all three tools are being used to create an optimal technology portfolio that will allow the design of a ZEH to be achieved.